If you’ve ever gone shopping for an air filter, chances are you’ve seen a couple of different numbers and ratings. At least one set of these numbers is the MERV rating, which the majority of air filters have.
MERV ratings are how air filters are scored based on their ability to clean the air and capture particles of varying sizes. The MERV rating is a globally recognized system that provides customers with an easy-to-read quality and performance rating between 1 – 16.
Filters with superior performance are rated higher. They also demonstrate a proven ability to remove particles of smaller sizes, such as dust or other allergens. Keep reading to learn more about MERV ratings and why they’re important.
MERV Rating 101: A Quick Rundown
MERV stands for Minimum Efficiency Reporting Values. This rating reports the filter’s ability to trap particles from 0.3 up to 10 microns— i.e., how well they work at cleaning your air.
These ratings go from 1 to 16, 1 representing the worst particle trapping efficiency and 16 being the best. So, the higher the rating is, the better the filter performs.
This rating comes from a test from the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), and is seen both domestically and internationally as the industry standard filter rating system.
These values are given independently for each filter, but can be useful for comparison when you need them to meet specific parameters. For example, if you want the best filter for allergies (covered in the Best MERV Rating For Allergies section later on) or the best filter for homes with pets.
Keep in mind, these ratings only apply to particulate filters; they don’t speak to a filter’s ability to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or ozone.
Despite this, air filters with MERV ratings are still used in almost every home, business, and residence across the U.S. (and even overseas).
How to Read MERV Ratings
As stated in the section above, MERV ratings go from 1 to 16. Higher ratings mean that filters are more efficient at cleaning air, while lower ratings mean that they can only trap smaller amounts of larger particulates.
In the chart below, you can see a basic rundown of the different MERV ratings and what they mean:
|MERV Rating||Average Particle Size Efficiency (Microns)|
|1 – 4||3.0 – 10.0; less than 20%|
|6 – 7||3.0 – 10.0; 49.9%|
|8 – 9||3.0 – 10.0; 84.8%|
|10 – 11||– 3.0; 50% – 64.9%3.0 – 10.0; 85% or greater|
|12 – 13||– 3.0; 80% – 89.9%3.0 – 10.0; 90% or greater|
|14 – 15||0.3 – 1.0; 75% – 84%1.0 – 3.0; 90% or greater|
|16||0.3 – 1.0; 75% or greater|
So for a filter that has a MERV rating of 4 or below, it can only trap particles that are between 3.0 and 10.0 microns. And of those, it traps less than 20%.
In comparison, a filter with a MERV rating of 14 or higher is capable of trapping particles as small as 0.3 microns. And of these small particles, it traps at least 75%.
The rating system is supposed to indicate how a filter will perform in the worst case scenario. This means that filters often perform better than rated, but simultaneously ensures the filters never perform worse than expected.
What MERV Rating Should I Use?
Currently, the ASHRAE recommends using a filter with a MERV rating of at least 13, but preferably 14 or higher.
However, they do note that owners should also take the capabilities of their current HVAC systems into consideration when choosing a filter.
Residential houses typically use filters with MERV ratings from 1 – 12.
For context, these are the type of places that may use filters with various MERV ratings:
- 1 – 8: Filters with a MERV rating of 1-4 are usually found in residential A/C units, while filters with a MERV rating of 5 – 8 can be found in residential houses, commercial buildings, and industrial workspaces.
- 9 – 12: Filters with a MERV rating 9 – 12 are found in higher quality residential, commercial, and industrial buildings. Filters with this rating may also be used in hospital laboratories or medical areas that do not involve surgery.
The highest ratings, 13 – 16, are more commonly found in hospitals and other places that perform general surgery.
You should also take your own needs into consideration, as well as the needs of those who live with you. People suffering from allergies, asthma, respiratory conditions, or other conditions that leave them immune-compromised should look for filters with higher MERV ratings.
In this case, a MERV rating of at least 10 would be recommended, depending on the severity of the conditions described above. Comparatively, people who have no health issues and live in an area with minimal air pollution may be comfortable with filters that have lower MERV ratings.
For individuals in such a home, filters with lower MERV ratings may be fine.
What MERV Rating Does Trane Recommend?
This is a bit of a trick question, since Trane doesn’t technically recommend MERV ratings at all. Instead, they use a comparable rating system called the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR), developed by the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM).
According to Trane’s website, this system “measures the effectiveness of air cleaning appliances. The higher the clean air delivery rate collect on the media, the more effective the unit is at cleaning the room or home of airborne particles and allergens.”
This outlines another primary different: MERV ratings apply specifically to filers, while the CADR ratings apply to appliances that contain filters or have filter capabilities. More specifically, the CADR rating system was developed in response to the rise of air purifiers.
Despite these differences, CADR is recognized by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a “fair and objective measure” of technology air filtration.
Similar to MERV, higher ratings are better; the higher the rating, the more effective the appliance is at removing particles and cleaning the air.
CADR ratings are broken down into three categories: tobacco smoke (10 – 450), pollen (25 – 450), and dust (10 – 400). Typically, appliances have ratings listed on them for each category.
Based on particle sizes, this is how CADR ratings and MERV ratings compare:
|CADR Category||CADR Rating (Particle Size)||MERV Rating||Particle Size|
|Tobacco Smoke||10 – 450 (0.06 – 1.0 microns)||14 – 16||0.3 – 1.0 microns|
|Pollen||25 – 450 (5 – 11 microns)||1 – 13||1.0 – 10.0 microns|
|Dust||10 – 400 (0.5 – 3 microns)||14 – 15||0.3 – 3.0 microns|
These ratings are based on cubic feet per minute of clean air delivered for a typical 3-ton heating and/or cooling system.
Which MERV Rating and CADR Rating Does Trane Recommend Overall?
Based on two out of the three categories evaluated (smoke and dust), filters with higher MERV ratings are preferred. This is further evidenced by their brand name air quality systems, the Trane CleanEffects™ Air Cleaner and the QuikBox™ Media Cabinet.
The former claims to remove up to 99.89% of airborne particles as small as 0.1 micron. This is actually more impressive than even the best MERV rating, which can only remove particles as small as 0.3 micron.
However, the QuikBox™ Media Cabinet does list MERV ratings for its furnace and air handler replacement filters. There are ten different models available, but all use filters with MERV ratings of 11. Furthermore, their Trane Comfort Performance Filter lists a MERV 9 performance rating.
Based on their own products, Trane appears to recommend MERV ratings of 9 or above. However, in terms of more serious air purification, they appear to prefer higher ratings.
What MERV Rating Can My Furnace Handle?
When considering filters for your furnace, there are two factors to consider:
- Furnace-filter fit
- Filtering capability
Regarding fit, your air filter should fit snugly within your furnace; there should be no gaps, open spots, etc. Depending on the size of your furnace, it may be difficult for you to find filters with the filtering capacity you want.
Make sure to measure your furnace before picking out an air filter. Filters usually have the dimensions printed on the packaging, but furnaces don’t.
Instead of guessing or eyeballing the dimensions, measure beforehand to make absolutely sure that the filter you choose is going to fit without modification.
Regarding filtering capacity, this is where the MERV ratings come in. When considering which rating your furnace can handle, try to balance your wishes with reality.
For example, you may want a filter with the highest MERV rating— after all, higher is better, right? But in reality, only hospitals and similar institutions need filters with ratings of 14 or higher.
Therefore, it’s best to look in the 8 – 13 range for filters. This range is perfect, since it also coincides with the rating most modern furnaces are equipped to handle.
Generally, filters within this range can be used without any modification to your furnace or other equipment. These types of filters also won’t put undue stress on your furnace, although you will still have to regularly change your air filters.
In contrast, filters with higher ratings may require system modifications, since your furnace is probably going to struggle to pull air through a filter that’s rated 14 or higher. Depending on the age of your furnace, it may be necessary for you to consult a professional regarding its capabilities.
Best MERV Rating for Furnace Filters
Furnaces are essential to maintaining air quality within our home. They have to contend with pet dander, garage emissions, dust mites, pollen, and so much more.
But don’t fall into the trap of extremes that many homeowners fall victim to:
- Low MERV Ratings – Poor quality filters allows too many particles into the furnace, filling it with debris, hindering its ability to function, and potentially damaging it.
- High MERV Ratings – On the flip side, a filter that’s too powerful does the same thing: it hinders air flow, reduces a furnace’s performance, and may damage your equipment.
With this in mind, it’s best to avoid the two extreme ends of the MERV rating scale. Once again, 8 – 13 are the best MERV ratings for furnace filters.
This range fits most modern furnaces, and even some older ones. Filters with these ratings will get rid of a wide range of particulates and allergens, but won’t disrupt your system or overload it.
The specific rating you choose may depend on your furnace’s capacity or your individual home. If you have pets, live in the city, or have strong allergies, then it’s probably best to look for filters in the 10 – 13 range.
Once you’ve decided on the MERV rating you’re looking for, you can also consider which type of filter you want. Generally, these break down into two categories: washable versus disposable.
You may also want to consider the financial angle. As MERV ratings go up, so does the cost. Though some families may be able to easily purchase and maintain a filter with a higher MERV rating, others may not.
Though every home is different, the rule of thumb for furnaces is to change the filter every 90 days. That’s four filter changes every year, once every three months. It’s best to try and find the sweet spot between what you can afford, what you need, and what your furnace can handle. Though tricky, it’s well worth it.
Best MERV Rating for Allergies
The best MERV ratings for allergies depends on what you’re allergic to. Each type of allergen has a different size, such as 11 microns, 5 microns, etc.
Generally, the larger your allergen is, the more filters you could buy. But smaller allergens will require filters with higher MERV ratings. Depending on the allergen you’re looking to remove and its size, there may be a range of MERV ratings that meet your needs.
Below is a chart of the different MERV ratings, the particle sizes they remove, and examples of corresponding allergens and other particles.
|MERV Rating||Particle Size||Examples of Allergens & Particles|
|1 – 4||10.0 microns or greater||Pollen, dust mites, cockroach debris, sanding dust, spray paint dust, textile fibers, and carpet fibers|
|5 – 8||3.0 – 10.0 microns||Mold spores, dust mite debris, cat and dog dander, hair spray, fabric protector, dusting aids, pudding mix|
|9 – 12||1.0 – 3.0 microns||Legionella, humidifier dust, lead dust, milled flour, auto emission particulates, nebulizer droplets|
|13 – 16||0.3 – 1.0 microns||Bacteria, droplet nuclei (sneeze), cooking oil, most smoke and insecticide dust, most face powder, most paint pigments|
If you’re unsure about what you’re allergic to or have multiple allergies, the safest choice would be to go with filters with higher MERV ratings.
Similarly, if you have allergies but are unsure what triggers them, filters with MERV ratings of at least 9 (but preferably higher) are your best bet for reducing symptoms. A quick and easy way to find high-rated filters is to check for pleating. Pleated filters usually have a higher MERV rating, while non-pleated filters have lower ratings.
You can also look for filters that specifically say ‘allergy’ or an equivalent on the packaging. Though filters with higher MERV ratings will remove common allergens, those specifically geared for people with allergies may have additional features that specifically target these issues.
Types Of Furnace Filters And Their MERV Ratings
There are several different types of air filters commercially available. Each one has different benefits and drawbacks, in addition to having a different MERV rating.
Generally, the MERV rating for the different types are as follows:
- Disposable Fiberglass – Made of spun fiberglass, this is the cheapest type of furnace filter. It’s very inexpensive, but doesn’t really clean the air beyond removing the largest particulates. MERV ratings are usually 2 – 3.
- Disposable Pleated – This popular option is often made of polyester or cotton paper. It does remove larger particulates, but also stands a higher chance of clogging your system more quickly. MERV ratings are usually 5 – 6.
- High-Efficiency Pleated – This option is best for those with allergies, as it’s made of thick synthetic cotton and filters out most particulates, both small and large. MERV ratings range from 10 – 16.
- Disposable Electrostatic – This self-charging fiber filter does a great job of trapping large particulates and can even be ordered in custom sizes (albeit this is more expensive). MERV ratings are usually 10 – 11.
- Reusable Electrostatic – Instead of replacing this filter, it’s machine washable and can last up to eight years. Despite how eco-friendly it is, this version is slightly less effective than its disposable counterpart. MERV ratings are usually 8 – 9.
- Polyester – For those interested in fiberglass, this is a higher performance option. It’s denser, removes more particulates, and comes in flat and pleated versions. MERV ratings range from 6 – 8.
The last type of air filter doesn’t quite apply to this list since it doesn’t have a traditional MERV rating.
You’ve no doubt heard of high-efficiency particular air filters, also known as HEPA air filters. They block and remove up to 99.7% of airborne particles that are 0.3 microns or larger. Some even claim to remove particles that are smaller than 0.3 microns, which is what removes it from the MERV ratings we’ve been discussing so far.
Additionally, these filters are very thick and not suitable for residential furnaces. They’re also not readily available in standard sizes, which also poses a problem. Instead, these filters are used almost exclusively by hospitals and other organizations. Thus, if they had a MERV rating, it would be in the unofficial range of 16 – 20.
Comparable Rating Systems
Despite MERV ratings being the recognized industry standard, they aren’t the only filter rating systems currently in use. There are three others that commonly appear: ISO ratings, FPR ratings, and MPR ratings.
Owners can also take the International Organization for Standardization’s (ISO) ratings into consideration. These filter ratings are comparable to MERV ratings, as outlined below.
|MERV Rating (Standard 52.2)||ISO Rating (Standard 16890)|
|1 – 6||ISO Coarse|
|7 – 8||ISO Coarse >95%|
|9 – 10||ePM10|
|11 – 12||ePM2.5|
|13 – 16||ePM1|
An ISO rating of ePM10 means that the filter can remove particulates ranging from 0.3 to 10 microns. Filters that are rated ePM2.5 can remove particulates ranging from 0.3 to 2.5 microns, and an ePM1 rating means that the filter can remove particles as small as 0.3 to 1.0 microns.
The EPA, World Health Organization (WHO), and European Union all use the same definitions regarding ISO ratings and particulate matter size ranges. Therefore, it’s useful to understand ISO ratings and their MERV equivalent. This way, you’ll understand a filter’s rating no matter which system it uses.
Besides these ISO ratings, there are two other commonly used rating systems: Filter Performance Rating (FPR) and the micro-particle performance rating (MPR).
Both of these were created by commercial businesses for marketing purposes. FPR was developed by the Home Depot, and MPR was created by 3M. Neither is recognized internationally.
The FRP rating uses a reduced scale of 4 through 10. It rates filters in broader terms: the ability to capture large particles, ability to capture small particles, and weight change over the filter’s lifetime. Each rating is also coordinating with a color-coding system for visual aid and ease of reference.
The MPR rating is based on particle size, from 0.3 to 1.0 microns. It exclusively rates filters on their ability to remove particles smaller than 1.0 micron and does not take larger microns into consideration.
This can be frustrating, since many allergens are larger than 1.0. For example, dust particles can be as large as 8 microns and pollen can easily clear 7 microns. Therefore, it is an extremely limited rating system.
Here’s an example of how both compare to four different MERV ratings:
|11||7||1,000 – 1,200|
|13||10||1,500 – 1,900|
Though the FPR and MPR rating systems aren’t as widely recognized or used as MERV, they are still effective and maintain strict quality standards.
Therefore, if a customer is looking for a MERV-rated filter but can only find a comparable FRP-rated one, the customer can still have confidence in the filter’s performance.