Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems use two kinds of fan motors, a permanent split capacitor (PSC) or an electronic commutated motor (ECM). PSC motors are more common since they are simple and inexpensive, but the benefits of ECMs are making them increasingly popular.
ECM motors work with direct current (DC), have variable speed capabilities, and offer better performance and efficiency than PSCs. PSC motors work with alternating current (AC), only have a single-speed capacity, and are a more cost-effective option.
This article will explain the differences between an ECM and PSC, explain how each motor works, and examine their pros and cons so you can decide if ECM motors are worth the extra money. Keep reading if you’re considering upgrading to an HVAC system with an ECM Motor!
Differences Between PSC and ECM Motors
ECM motors use an internal microprocessor that adjusts the amount of power it sends to the blower. The microprocessor can determine precisely how much airflow is needed to optimize efficiency based on the desired temperature of the room.
In contrast, PSC motors work at a constant speed since they do not have a microprocessor that alters the power to be sent to the blower. A PSC motor operates at full capacity unless it is switched off. Speed taps can be used to add resistance in order to decrease the fan speed, which puts added strain on the motor.
How a PSC Motor Works?
A PSC motor is a single-phase AC motor, and is propelled by one alternating current. The current flows through conductive wires around a magnetic core, known as motor windings.
PSC motors have two windings:
- Main winding. This is connected to the power supply
- Secondary winding. This is responsible for storing the electrical energy
When the motor is turned on, power is sent to the main winding. The capacitor then causes a slight delay before the current reaches the secondary winding, which forces the magnetic field of each winding to peak alternately and generates the torque required to turn the fan.
How an ECM Motor Works?
ECMs consist of a control module and a three-phase brushless DC motor. The control module converts single-phase AC to three-phase DC using a power inverter, and also increases and decreases the power sent to the motor’s electromagnets.
The magnetic field generated by the magnets moves in a circular pattern to turn the rotor. A microprocessor in the control module uses a feedback mechanism to control the magnetic fields so that the HVAC performs according to the desired room temperature without human intervention.
ECMs usually work in tandem with circuit boards that are shared with an HVAC system’s controls and switches that allow users to adjust the settings.
Pros and Cons of PSC and ECM Motors
Regardless of which motor type an HVAC system uses, neither will be perfect. PSC and ECM motors both have advantages and drawbacks over one another.
Let’s examine the pros and cons more closely to help you decide which motor is best for you:
- More affordable: PSC motors have more basic components and do not have microprocessors and control modules, making them generally more affordable.
- Easier to fix: Since a PSC motor’s internal parts are less complex, it is easier to fix and usually costs less to repair.
- Less efficient: The capacitor in PSC motors consumes more watts and generates more heat, which compromises efficiency. The absence of variable speed means the motor will use up more power than needed in certain situations.
- Respond slower: Since PSC motors are not electronically controlled, they usually have mechanical knobs and respond slower to user inputs.
- No programmable controls: The absence of a microprocessor means the user is left with fewer HVAC settings and will not be able to program special cooling or heating patterns. Another disadvantage of having a fixed speed is that it increases the chances of cold and warm spots and a drying effect during winter. And since a PSC works at full force as soon as it’s turned on, humidity is more likely to accumulate.
- Noisier operation: PSC motors generate more noise than ECMs since their motors are not brushless.
- Less reliable: Although a PSC motor can last for years without servicing, the brushes can wear out over time, and the capacitor can overheat when used for extended periods. The motor runs at full capacity or uses resistance to decrease speed also translates to more stress on the motor. Hence, a PSC motor may have shorter service intervals than an ECM.
- More efficient: ECMs consume fewer watts, generate less heat, and their control module ensures that they never use more power than they need. A PCS motor’s efficiency ranges between 50-60%, while an ECM’s efficiency is somewhere between 80-90%.
- Faster response: Since ECMs are linked to the HVACs controls via a circuit board, they can adjust much quicker to the user’s inputs.
- Easier to control: ECMs have more user-friendly control and offer operational flexibility with more settings to choose from. Some even have smart features that adjust automatically based on user preferences and different room conditions.
- Better air quality: The variable speed capabilities of ECMs also translates to better air quality. By adapting to room conditions accordingly, the temperature is more consistent. An ECM can run at a lower speed when initially turned on and shut down gradually to prevent humidity.
- Not as noisy: Aside from not constantly running at full speed, ECMs have brushless motors that make them significantly quieter than PSCs.
- More reliable: ECMs have fewer moving parts than PSCs due to their brushless motors. The ball bearings do not need lubrication, and the unit can run longer with extended service intervals. An ECM can outlive a PCS motor by 50,000 hours since the motor is less strained.
- Lower operational cost: The efficiency of ECMs will lower your monthly electricity bill. You’ll also spend less on maintenance since ECMs have longer service intervals.
- Higher once-off purchase: ECMs may have lower operational costs, but they will be more expensive to acquire since they use more complicated parts like circuit boards and control modules with microprocessors.
- Cost more to repair: ECMs have more intricate parts, like the control modules and numerous windings. So, even if ECMs have longer service intervals, the cost of repairs or replacing parts will be more expensive since they are more complex. Fortunately, parts like the module and motor can be replaced separately without buying the entire unit.
Other HVAC Performance Factors
The type of motor used in your HVAC system may significantly impact its performance, but there are other factors you should also consider.
Here what affects an HVAC system’s performance:
- Usage: Using the HVAC system more regularly for extended periods affects wear and tear. Service intervals should be shortened with more extensive use. Naturally, an HVAC’s performance may decline over time.
- Air quality: The quality of air can significantly impact performance. Areas with dust and debris can cause the filters to clog prematurely.
- Size: Make sure your HVAC system is the right size based on your room’s size. If the system is too small, it will struggle to provide the desired temperature, while a unit that is too big is a waste of energy and money.
- Maintenance: Improper maintenance can significantly impair the performance of an HVAC unit. An HVAC service plan can be a convenient way to keep your unit in good shape.
The main drawback of an HVAC system with an ECM is that it costs more to purchase. However, it’s hard to ignore the numerous benefits ECMs have over PCS motors.
And when you factor in how much money you can save in the long run, due to ECMs being more efficient and reliable, an HVAC with an ECM is the obvious choice.